MathJax TeX and LaTeX Support¶
The support for TeX and LaTeX in MathJax consists of two
parts: the tex2jax preprocessor, and the TeX input processor. The
first of these looks for mathematics within your web page (indicated by
math delimiters like $$...$$
) and marks the mathematics for later
processing by MathJax. The TeX input processor is what converts the TeX
notation into MathJax’s internal format, where one of MathJax’s output
processors then displays it in the web page.
The tex2jax preprocessor can be configured to look for whatever markers you want to use for your math delimiters. See the tex2jax configuration options section for details on how to customize the action of tex2jax.
The TeX input processor handles conversion of your mathematical notation into MathJax’s internal format (which is essentially MathML), and so acts as a TeX to MathML converter. The TeX input processor has few configuration options (see the TeX options section for details), but it can also be customized through the use of extensions that define additional functionality (see the TeX and LaTeX extensions below).
Note that the TeX input processor implements only the mathmode
macros of TeX and LaTeX, not the textmode macros. MathJax expects
that you will use standard HTML tags to handle formatting the text of
your page; it only handles the mathematics. So, for example, MathJax
does not implement \emph
or
\begin{enumerate}...\end{enumerate}
or other textmode macros or
environments. You must use HTML to handle such formatting tasks. If
you need a LaTeXtoHTML converter, you should consider other options.
TeX and LaTeX math delimiters¶
By default, the tex2jax preprocessor defines the LaTeX math delimiters,
which are \(...\)
for inline math, and \[...\]
for displayed
equations. It also defines the TeX delimiters $$...$$
for displayed
equations, but it does not define $...$
as inline math
delimiters. That is because dollar signs appear too often in
nonmathematical settings, which could cause some text to be treated
as mathematics unexpectedly. For example, with singledollar
delimiters, ”... the cost is $2.50 for the first one, and $2.00 for
each additional one ...” would cause the phrase “2.50 for the first
one, and” to be treated as mathematics since it falls between dollar
signs. For this reason, if you want to use singledollars for inline
math mode, you must enable that explicitly in your configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
tex2jax: {
inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)']],
processEscapes: true
}
});
Note that if you do this, you may want to also set processEscapes
to
true
, as in the example above, so that you can use \$
to prevent a
dollar sign from being treated as a math delimiter within the text of your
web page. (Note that within TeX mathematics, \$
always has this
meaning; processEscapes
only affects the treatment of the opening
math delimiter.)
Note that, as opposed to true LaTeX, MathJax processes all environments
when wrapped inside math delimiters. By defaut, MathJax will
also render all environments outside of delimiters; this can be controlled
via the processEnvironments
option in the tex2jax configuration
options.
See the config/default.js
file, or the tex2jax configuration
options page, for additional configuration
parameters that you can specify for the tex2jax preprocessor,
which is the component of MathJax that identifies TeX notation within
the page.
TeX and LaTeX in HTML documents¶
Keep in mind that your mathematics is part of an HTML document, so you
need to be aware of the special characters used by HTML as part of its
markup. There cannot be HTML tags within the math delimiters (other
than <br>
) as TeXformatted math does not include HTML tags.
Also, since the mathematics is initially given as text on the page,
you need to be careful that your mathematics doesn’t look like HTML
tags to the browser (which parses the page before MathJax gets to see
it). In particular, that means that you have to be careful about
things like lessthan and greaterthan signs (<
and >
), and
ampersands (&
), which have special meaning to the browsers. For
example,
... when $x<y$ we have ...
will cause a problem, because the browser will think <y
is the
beginning of a tag named y
(even though there is no such tag in
HTML). When this happens, the browser will think the tag continues up
to the next >
in the document (typically the end of the next
actual tag in the HTML file), and you may notice that you are missing
part of the text of the document. In the example above, the “we
have ...
” will not be displayed because the browser thinks it is
part of the tag starting at <y
. This is one indication you can
use to spot this problem; it is a common error and should be avoided.
Usually, it is sufficient to simply put spaces around these symbols to cause the browser to avoid them, so
... when $x < y$ we have ...
should work. Alternatively, you can use the HTML entities <
,
>
and &
to encode these characters so that the browser
will not interpret them, but MathJax will. E.g.,
... when $x < y$ we have ...
Finally, there are \lt
and \gt
macros defined to make it
easier to enter <
and >
using TeXlike syntax:
... when $x \lt y$ we have ...
Keep in mind that the browser interprets your text before MathJax does.
Another source of difficulty is when MathJax is used in content
management systems that have their own document processing commands
that are interpreted before the HTML page is created. For example,
many blogs and wikis use formats like Markdown to allow you to
create the content of you pages. In Markdown, the underscore is used
to indicate italics, and this usage will conflict with MathJax’s use
of the underscore to indicate a subscript. Since Markdown is applied
to the page first, it will convert your subscripts markers into
italics (inserting <i>
tags into your mathematics, which will
cause MathJax to ignore the math).
Such systems need to be told not to modify the mathematics that appears between math delimiters. That usually involves modifying the contentmanagement system itself, which is beyond the means of most page authors. If you are lucky, someone else will already have done this for you, and you can find a MathJax plugin for your system on the MathJaxInUse page.
If there is no plugin for your system, or if it doesn’t handle the
subtleties of isolating the mathematics from the other markup that it
supports, then you may have to “trick” it into leaving your
mathematics untouched. Most contentmanagement systems provide some
means of indicating text that should not be modified (“verbatim”
text), often for giving code snippets for computer languages.
You may be use that to enclose your mathematics so that the system
leaves it unchanged and MathJax can process it. For example, in
Markdown, the backtick (`
) is used to mark verbatim text, so
... we have `\(x_1 = 132\)` and `\(x_2 = 370\)` and so ...
may be able to protect the underscores from being processed by Markdown.
Some contentmanagement systems use the backslash (\
) as a special
character for “escaping” other characters, but TeX uses this character
to indicate a macro name. In such systems, you may have to double the
backslashes in order to obtain a single backslash in your HTML page.
For example, you may have to do
\\begin{array}{cc}
a & b \\\\
c & c
\\end{array}
to get an array with the four entries a, b, c, and d. Note in
particular that if you want \\
you will have to double both
backslashes, giving \\\\
.
Finally, if you have enabled single dollarsigns as math delimiters,
and you want to include a literal dollar sign in your web page (one
that doesn’t represent a math delimiter), you will need to prevent
MathJax from using it as a math delimiter. If you also enable the
processEscapes
configuration parameter, then you can use \$
in
the text of your page to get a dollar sign (without the backslash) in
the end. Alternatively, you use something like
<span>$</span>
to isolate the dollar sign so that
MathJax will not use it as a delimiter.
Defining TeX macros¶
You can use the \def
, \newcommand
, \renewcommand
,
\newenvironment
, \renewenvironment
, and \let
commands to
create your own macros and environments. Unlike actual TeX, however,
in order for MathJax to process such definitions, they must be
enclosed in math delimiters (since MathJax only processes macros in
mathmode). For example
\(
\def\RR{\bf R}
\def\bold#1{\bf #1}
\)
would define \RR
to produce a boldfaced “R”, and \bold{...}
to put its argument into bold face. Both definitions would be
available throughout the rest of the page.
You can include macro definitions in the Macros section of the TeX blocks of your configuration, but they must be represented as JavaScript objects. For example, the two macros above can be predefined in the configuration by
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: {
Macros: {
RR: "{\\bf R}",
bold: ["{\\bf #1}",1]
}
}
});
Here you give the macro as a name:value pair, where the name is the name of the control sequence (without the backslash) that you are defining, and value is either the replacement string for the macro (when there are no arguments) or an array consisting of the replacement string followed by the number of arguments for the macro.
Note that the replacement string is given as a JavaScript string literal, and the backslash has special meaning in JavaScript strings. So to get an actual backslash in the string you must double it, as in the examples above.
If you have many such definitions that you want to use on more than
one page, you could put them into a configuration file that you can
load along with the main configuration file. For example, you could
create a file in MathJax/config/local
called local.js
that
contains your macro definitions:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: {
Macros: {
RR: "{\\bf R}",
bold: ["{\\bf #1}",1]
}
}
});
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/config/local/local.js");
and then load it along with your main configuration file on the script
that loads MathJax.js
:
<script src="/MathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_HTML,local/local.js"></script>
If you are using the CDN, you can make a local configuration file on your own server, and load MathJax itself from the CDN and your configuration file from your server. See Using a Local Configuration File with the CDN for details.
Automatic Equation Numbering¶
New in MathJax v2.0 is the ability to have equations be numbered automatically. This functionality is turned off by default, so that pages don’t change when you update from v1.1 to v2.0, but it is easy to configure MathJax to produce automatic equation numbers by adding:
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: { equationNumbers: { autoNumber: "AMS" } }
});
</script>
to your page just before the <script>
tag that loads
MathJax.js
itself.
Equations can be numbered in two ways: either number the AMSmath
environments as LaTeX would, or number all displayed equations (the
example above uses AMSstyle numbering). Set autoNumber
to
"all"
if you want every displayed equation to be numbered.
You can use \notag
or \nonumber
to prevent
individual equations from being numbered, and \tag{}
can be used
to override the usual equation number with your own symbol instead.
Note that the AMS environments come in two forms: starred and
unstarred. The unstarred versions produce equation numbers (when
autoNumber
is set to "AMS"
) and the starred ones don’t. For
example
\begin{equation}
E = mc^2
\end{equation}
will be numbered, while
\begin{equation*}
e^{\pi i} + 1 = 0
\end{equation*}
won’t be numbered (when autoNumber
is "AMS"
).
You can use \label
to give an equation an identifier that you can
use to refer to it later, and then use \ref
or \eqref
within
your document to insert the actual equation number at that location,
as a reference. For example,
In equation \eqref{eq:sample}, we find the value of an
interesting integral:
\begin{equation}
\int_0^\infty \frac{x^3}{e^x1}\,dx = \frac{\pi^4}{15}
\label{eq:sample}
\end{equation}
includes a labeled equation and a reference to that equation. Note that references can come before the corresponding formula as well as after them. See the equation numbering links in the MathJax examples page for more examples.
You can configure the way that numbers are displayed and how the
references to them are made using parameters in the equationNumbers
block of your TeX
configuration. See the TeX configuration
options page for more details.
If you are using automatic equation numbering and modifying the page dynamically, you can run into problems due to duplicate labels. See Reset Automatic Equation Numbering for how to address this.
TeX and LaTeX extensions¶
While MathJax includes nearly all of the Plain TeX math macros, and
many of the LaTeX macros and environments, not everything is
implemented in the core TeX input processor. Some lessused commands
are defined in extensions to the TeX processor. MathJax will load
some extensions automatically when you first use the commands they
implement (for example, the \def
and \newcommand
macros are
implemented in the newcommand.js
extension, but MathJax loads
this extension itself when you use those macros). Not all extensions
are set up to load automatically, however, so you may need to request
some extensions explicitly yourself.
To enable any of the TeX extensions, simply add the appropriate string
(e.g., "AMSmath.js"
) to the extensions array in the TeX
block
of your configuration. If you use one of the combined configuration files,
like TeXAMS_HTML
, this will already include several of the extensions
automatically, but you can include others using a mathjax configuration
script prior to loading MathJax. For example
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({ TeX: { extensions: ["autobold.js"] }});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript"
src="https://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_HTML">
</script>
will load the autobold TeX extension in addition to those already
included in the TeXAMS_HTML
configuration file.
You can also load these extensions from within a math expresion using
the nonstandard \require{extension}
macro. For example
\(\require{color}\)
would load the color extension into the page. This way you you can load extensions into pages that didn’t load them in their configurations (and prevents you from having to load all the extensions into all pages even if they aren’t used).
It is also possible to create a macro that will autoload an extension when it is first used (under the assumption that the extension will redefine it to perform its true function). For example
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Jax Ready",function () {
MathJax.Hub.Insert(MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.macros,{
cancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
bcancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
xcancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
cancelto: ["Extension","cancel"]
});
});
</script>
would declare the \cancel
, \bcancel
, \xcancel
, and
\cancelto
macros to load the cancel extension (where they are
actually defined). Whichever is used first will cause the extension
to be loaded, redefining all four to their proper values. Note that
this may be better than loading the extension explicitly, since it
avoids loading the extra file on pages where these macros are not
used. The sample autoloading macros
example page shows this in action. The autoloadall extension below
defines such macros for all the extensions so that if you include
it, MathJax will have access to all the macros it knows about.
The main extensions are described below.
Action¶
The action extension gives you access to the MathML <maction>
element. It defines three new nonstandard macros:

\mathtip{math}{tip}
Use
tip
(in math mode) as tooltip formath
.

\texttip{math}{tip}
Use
tip
(in text mode) as tooltip formath
.

\toggle{math1}{math2}...\endtoggle
Show
math1
, and when clicked, showmath2
, and so on. When the last one is clicked, go back to math1.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["action.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
AMSmath and AMSsymbols¶
The AMSmath extension implements AMS math environments and macros, and the AMSsymbols extension implements macros for accessing the AMS symbol fonts. These are already included in the combined configuration files that load the TeX input processor. To use these extensions in your own configurations, add them to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js", "AMSsymbols.js", ...]
}
See the list of control sequences at the end of this document for details about what commands are implemented in these extensions.
If you are not using one of the combined configuration files, the AMSmath extension will be loaded automatically when you first use one of the math environments it defines, but you will have to load it explicitly if you want to use the other macros that it defines. The AMSsymbols extension is not loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly if you want to use the macros it defines.
Both extensions are included in all the combined configuration files that load the TeX input processor.
AMScd¶
The AMScd extensions implements the CD environment for commutative diagrams. See the AMScd guide for more information on how to use the CD environment.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMScd.js"]
}
Alternatively, if the extension hasn’t been loaded in the
configuration, you can use \require{AMScd}
to load it from within a
TeX expression. Note that you only need to include this once on the
page, not every time the CD environment is used.
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Autobold¶
The autobold extension adds \boldsymbol{...}
around mathematics that
appears in a section of an HTML page that is in bold.
TeX: {
extensions: ["autobold.js"]
}
This extension is not loaded by the combined configuration files.
BBox¶
The bbox extension defines a new macro for adding background colors, borders, and padding to your math expressions.

\bbox[options]{math}
puts a bounding box around
math
using the providedoptions
. The options can be one of the following: A color name used for the background color.
 A dimension (e.g.,
2px
) to be used as a padding around the mathematics (on all sides).  Style attributes to be applied to the mathematics (e.g.,
border:1px solid red
).  A combination of these separated by commas.
Here are some examples:
\bbox[red]{x+y} % a red box behind x+y
\bbox[2pt]{x+1} % an invisible box around x+y with 2pt of extra space
\bbox[red,2pt]{x+1} % a red box around x+y with 2pt of extra space
\bbox[5px,border:2px solid red]
% a 2px red border around the math 5px away
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, but it will be loaded automatically, so you do not need to include it in your extensions array.
Begingroup¶
The begingroup extension implements commands that provide a mechanism for localizing macro defintions so that they are not permanent. This is useful if you have a blog site, for example, and want to isolate changes that your readers make in their comments so that they don’t affect later comments.
It defines two new nonstandard macros, \begingroup
and
\endgroup
, that are used to start and stop a local namespace for
macros. Any macros that are defined between the \begingroup
and
\endgroup
will be removed after the \endgroup
is executed.
For example, if you put \(\begingroup\)
at the top of each reader’s
comments and \(\endgroup\)
at the end, then any macros they define
within their response will be removed after it is processed.
In addition to these two macros, the begingroup extension defines
the standard \global
and \gdef
control sequences from TeX.
(The \let
, \def
, \newcommand
, and \newenvironment
control sequences are already defined in the core TeX input jax.)
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["begingroup.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Cancel¶
The cancel extension defines the following macros:

\cancel{math}
Strikeout
math
from lower left to upper right.

\bcancel{math}
Strikeout
math
from upper left to lower right.

\xcancel{math}
Strikeout
math
with an “X”.

\cancelto{value}{math}
Strikeout
math
with an arrow going tovalue
.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["cancel.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Color¶
The \color
command in the core TeX input jax is not standard in
that it takes the mathematics to be colored as one of its parameters,
whereas the LaTeX \color
command is a switch that changes the
color of everything that follows it.
The color extension changes the \color
command to be compatible
with the LaTeX implementation, and also defines \colorbox
,
\fcolorbox
, and \definecolor
, as in the LaTeX color package.
It defines the standard set of colors (Apricot, Aquamarine,
Bittersweet, and so on), and provides the RGB and greyscale color
spaces in addition to named colors.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["color.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands,
and have \color
be compatible with LaTeX usage.
Enclose¶
The enclose extension gives you access to the MathML <menclose>
element for adding boxes, ovals, strikethroughs, and other marks over
your mathematics. It defines the following nonstandard macro:

\enclose{notation}[attributes]{math}
Where
notation
is a commaseparated list of MathML<menclose>
notations (e.g.,circle
,left
,updiagonalstrike
,longdiv
, etc.),attributes
are MathML attribute values allowed on the<menclose>
element (e.g.,mathcolor="red"
,mathbackground="yellow"
), andmath
is the mathematics to be enclosed. See the MathML 3 specification for more details on<menclose>
.
For example
\enclose{circle}[mathcolor="red"]{x}
\enclose{circle}[mathcolor="red"]{\color{black}{x}}
\enclose{circle,box}{x}
\enclose{circle}{\enclose{box}{x}}
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["enclose.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Extpfeil¶
The extpfeil extension adds more macros for producing extensible
arrows, including \xtwoheadrightarrow
, \xtwoheadleftarrow
,
\xmapsto
, \xlongequal
, \xtofrom
, and a nonstandard
\Newextarrow
for creating your own extensible arrows. The latter
has the form

\Newextarrow{\cs}{lspace,rspace}{unicodechar}
where
\cs
is the new control sequence name to be defined,lspace
andrspace
are integers representing the amount of space (in suitably small units) to use at the left and right of text that is placed above or below the arrow, andunicodechar
is a number representing a unicode character position in either decimal or hexadecimal notation.
For example
\Newextarrow{\xrightharpoonup}{5,10}{0x21C0}
defines an extensible right harpoon with barb up. Note that MathJax knows how to stretch only a limited number of characters, so you may not actually get a stretchy character this way.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["extpfeil.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
HTML¶
The HTML extension gives you access to some HTML features like styles, classes, element ID’s and clickable links. It defines the following nonstandard macros:

\href{url}{math}
Makes
math
be a link to the page given byurl
.

\class{name}{math}
Attaches the CSS class
name
to the output associated withmath
when it is included in the HTML page. This allows your CSS to style the element.

\cssId{id}{math}
Attaches an id attribute with value
id
to the output associated withmath
when it is included in the HTML page. This allows your CSS to style the element, or your javascript to locate it on the page.

\style{css}{math}
Adds the give
css
declarations to the element associated withmath
.
For example:
x \href{whyequal.html}{=} y^2 + 1
(x+1)^2 = \class{hidden}{(x+1)(x+1)}
(x+1)^2 = \cssId{step1}{\style{visibility:hidden}{(x+1)(x+1)}}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, but it will be loaded automatically when any of these macros is used, so you do not need to include it explicitly in your configuration.
mhchem¶
The mhchem extensions implements the \ce
, \cf
, and \cee
chemical equation macros of the LaTeX mhchem package. See the
mhchem CTAN page for more
information and a link to the documentation for mhchem.
For example
\ce{C6H5CHO}
\ce{$A$ >[\ce{+H2O}] $B$}
\ce{SO4^2 + Ba^2+ > BaSO4 v}
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["mhchem.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
noErrors¶
The noErrors extension prevents TeX error messages from being displayed and shows the original TeX code instead. You can configure whether the dollar signs are shown or not for inline math, and whether to put all the TeX on one line or use multiple lines (if the original text contained line breaks).
This extension is loaded by all the combined configuration files that
include the TeX input processor. To enable the noErrors extension in
your own configuration, or to modify its parameters, add something like the
following to your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call:
TeX: {
extensions: ["noErrors.js"],
noErrors: {
inlineDelimiters: ["",""], // or ["$","$"] or ["\\(","\\)"]
multiLine: true, // false for TeX on all one line
style: {
"fontsize": "90%",
"textalign": "left",
"color": "black",
"padding": "1px 3px",
"border": "1px solid"
// add any additional CSS styles that you want
// (be sure there is no extra comma at the end of the last item)
}
}
}
Displaystyle math is always shown in multiline format, and without delimiters, as it will already be set off in its own centered paragraph, like standard display mathematics.
The default settings place the invalid TeX in a multiline box with a black border. If you want it to look as though the TeX is just part of the paragraph, use
TeX: {
noErrors: {
inlineDelimiters: ["$","$"], // or ["",""] or ["\\(","\\)"]
multiLine: false,
style: {
"fontsize": "normal",
"border": ""
}
}
}
You may also wish to set the font family or other CSS values here.
If you are using a combined configuration file that loads the TeX input processor, it will also load the noErrors extension automatically. If you want to disable the noErrors extension so that you receive the normal TeX error messages, use the following configuration:
TeX: { noErrors: { disabled: true } }
Any math that includes errors will be replaced by an error message indicating what went wrong.
noUndefined¶
The noUndefined extension causes undefined control sequences to be
shown as their macro names rather than generating error messages. So
$X_{\xxx}$
would display as an “X” with a subscript consisting of the
text \xxx
in red.
This extension is loaded by all the combined configuration files that
include the TeX input processor. To enable the noUndefined extension
in your own configuration, or to modify its parameters, add something like
the following to your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call:
TeX: {
extensions: ["noUndefined.js"],
noUndefined: {
attributes: {
mathcolor: "red",
mathbackground: "#FFEEEE",
mathsize: "90%"
}
}
}
The attributes
setting specifies attributes to apply to the
mtext
element that encodes the name of the undefined macro. The
default values set mathcolor
to "red"
, but do not set any
other attributes. This example sets the background to a light pink,
and reduces the font size slightly.
If you are using a combined configuration file that loads the TeX input processor, it will also load the noUndefined extension automatically. If you want to disable the noUndefined extension so that you receive the normal TeX error messages for undefined macros, use the following configuration:
TeX: { noUndefined: { disabled: true } }
Any math that includes an undefined control sequence name will be replaced by an error message indicating what name was undefined.
Unicode support¶
The unicode extension implements a \unicode{}
extension to TeX
that allows arbitrary unicode code points to be entered in your
mathematics. You can specify the height and depth of the character
(the width is determined by the browser), and the default font from
which to take the character.
Examples:
\unicode{65} % the character 'A'
\unicode{x41} % the character 'A'
\unicode[.55,0.05]{x22D6} % lessthan with dot, with height .55em and depth 0.05em
\unicode[.55,0.05][Geramond]{x22D6} % same taken from Geramond font
\unicode[Garamond]{x22D6} % same, but with default height, depth of .8em,.2em
Once a size and font are provided for a given unicode point, they need
not be specified again in subsequent \unicode{}
calls for that
character.
The result of \unicode{...}
will have TeX class ORD (i.e., it
will act like a variable). Use \mathbin{...}
, \mathrel{...}
,
etc., to specify a different class.
Note that a font list can be given in the \unicode{}
macro, but
Internet Explorer has a buggy implementation of the fontfamily
CSS attribute where it only looks in the first font in the list that
is actually installed on the system, and if the required glyph is not
in that font, it does not look at later fonts, but goes directly to
the default font as set in the InternetOptions/Font panel. For
this reason, the default font list for the \unicode{}
macro is
STIXGeneral, 'Arial Unicode MS'
, so if the user has STIX
fonts, the symbol will be taken from that (almost all the symbols are
in STIXGeneral), otherwise MathJax tries Arial Unicode MS.
The unicode extension is loaded automatically when you first use the
\unicode{}
macro, so you do not need to add it to the extensions
array. You can configure the extension as follows:
TeX: {
unicode: {
fonts: "STIXGeneral, 'Arial Unicode MS'"
}
}
Autoloadall¶
The autoloadall extension predefines all the macros from the
extensions above so that they autoload the extensions when first
used. A number of macros already do this, e.g., \unicode
, but
this extension defines the others to do the same. That way MathJax
will have access to all the macros that it knows about.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["autoloadall.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Note that autoloadall redefines \color
to be the one from the
color extension (the LaTeXcompatible one rather than the
nonstandard MathJax version). This is because \colorbox
and
\fcolorbox
autoload the color extension, which will cause
\color
to be redefined, and so for consistency, \color
is
redefined immediately.
If you wish to retain the original definition of \color
, then use
the following
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: { extensions: ["autoloadall.js"] }
});
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX autoloadall Ready", function () {
var MACROS = MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.macros;
MACROS.color = "Color";
delete MACROS.colorbox;
delete MACROS.fcolorbox;
});
</script>
Supported LaTeX commands¶
This is a long list of the TeX macros supported by MathJax. If the macro is defined in an extension, the name of the extension follows the macro name. If the extension is in brackets, the extension will be loaded automatically when the macro or environment is first used.
More complete details about how to use these macros, with examples and explanations, is available at Carol Fisher’s TeX Commands Available in MathJax page.
Symbols¶
#
%
&
^
_
{
}
~
'
\ (backslashspace)
\!
\#
\$
\%
\&
\,
\:
\;
\>
\\
\_
\{
\
\}
A¶
\above
\abovewithdelims
\acute
\aleph
\alpha
\amalg
\And
\angle
\approx
\approxeq AMSsymbols
\arccos
\arcsin
\arctan
\arg
\array
\Arrowvert
\arrowvert
\ast
\asymp
\atop
\atopwithdelims
B¶
\backepsilon AMSsymbols
\backprime AMSsymbols
\backsim AMSsymbols
\backsimeq AMSsymbols
\backslash
\backslash
\bar
\barwedge AMSsymbols
\Bbb
\Bbbk AMSsymbols
\bbox [bbox]
\bcancel cancel
\because AMSsymbols
\begin
\begingroup begingroup nonstandard
\beta
\beth AMSsymbols
\between AMSsymbols
\bf
\Big
\big
\bigcap
\bigcirc
\bigcup
\Bigg
\bigg
\Biggl
\biggl
\Biggm
\biggm
\Biggr
\biggr
\Bigl
\bigl
\Bigm
\bigm
\bigodot
\bigoplus
\bigotimes
\Bigr
\bigr
\bigsqcup
\bigstar AMSsymbols
\bigtriangledown
\bigtriangleup
\biguplus
\bigvee
\bigwedge
\binom AMSmath
\blacklozenge AMSsymbols
\blacksquare AMSsymbols
\blacktriangle AMSsymbols
\blacktriangledown AMSsymbols
\blacktriangleleft AMSsymbols
\blacktriangleright AMSsymbols
\bmod
\boldsymbol [boldsymbol]
\bot
\bowtie
\Box AMSsymbols
\boxdot AMSsymbols
\boxed AMSmath
\boxminus AMSsymbols
\boxplus AMSsymbols
\boxtimes AMSsymbols
\brace
\bracevert
\brack
\breve
\buildrel
\bullet
\Bumpeq AMSsymbols
\bumpeq AMSsymbols
C¶
\cal
\cancel cancel
\cancelto cancel
\cap
\Cap AMSsymbols
\cases
\cdot
\cdotp
\cdots
\ce mhchem
\cee mhchem
\centerdot AMSsymbols
\cf mhchem
\cfrac AMSmath
\check
\checkmark AMSsymbols
\chi
\choose
\circ
\circeq AMSsymbols
\circlearrowleft AMSsymbols
\circlearrowright AMSsymbols
\circledast AMSsymbols
\circledcirc AMSsymbols
\circleddash AMSsymbols
\circledR AMSsymbols
\circledS AMSsymbols
\class [HTML] nonstandard
\clubsuit
\colon
\color color
\colorbox color
\complement AMSsymbols
\cong
\coprod
\cos
\cosh
\cot
\coth
\cr
\csc
\cssId [HTML] nonstandard
\cup
\Cup AMSsymbols
\curlyeqprec AMSsymbols
\curlyeqsucc AMSsymbols
\curlyvee AMSsymbols
\curlywedge AMSsymbols
\curvearrowleft AMSsymbols
\curvearrowright AMSsymbols
D¶
\dagger
\daleth AMSsymbols
\dashleftarrow AMSsymbols
\dashrightarrow AMSsymbols
\dashv
\dbinom AMSmath
\ddagger
\ddddot AMSmath
\dddot AMSmath
\ddot
\ddots
\DeclareMathOperator AMSmath
\definecolor color
\def [newcommand]
\deg
\Delta
\delta
\det
\dfrac AMSmath
\diagdown AMSsymbols
\diagup AMSsymbols
\diamond
\Diamond AMSsymbols
\diamondsuit
\digamma AMSsymbols
\dim
\displaylines
\displaystyle
\div
\divideontimes AMSsymbols
\dot
\doteq
\Doteq AMSsymbols
\doteqdot AMSsymbols
\dotplus AMSsymbols
\dots
\dotsb
\dotsc
\dotsi
\dotsm
\dotso
\doublebarwedge AMSsymbols
\doublecap AMSsymbols
\doublecup AMSsymbols
\Downarrow
\downarrow
\downdownarrows AMSsymbols
\downharpoonleft AMSsymbols
\downharpoonright AMSsymbols
E¶
\ell
\emptyset
\enclose enclose nonstandard
\end
\endgroup begingroup nonstandard
\enspace
\epsilon
\eqalign
\eqalignno
\eqcirc AMSsymbols
\eqref [AMSmath]
\eqsim AMSsymbols
\eqslantgtr AMSsymbols
\eqslantless AMSsymbols
\equiv
\eta
\eth AMSsymbols
\exists
\exp
F¶
\fallingdotseq AMSsymbols
\fbox
\fcolorbox color
\Finv AMSsymbols
\flat
\forall
\frac
\frac AMSmath
\frak
\frown
G¶
\Game AMSsymbols
\Gamma
\gamma
\gcd
\gdef begingroup
\ge
\genfrac AMSmath
\geq
\geqq AMSsymbols
\geqslant AMSsymbols
\gets
\gg
\ggg AMSsymbols
\gggtr AMSsymbols
\gimel AMSsymbols
\global begingroup
\gnapprox AMSsymbols
\gneq AMSsymbols
\gneqq AMSsymbols
\gnsim AMSsymbols
\grave
\gt
\gt
\gtrapprox AMSsymbols
\gtrdot AMSsymbols
\gtreqless AMSsymbols
\gtreqqless AMSsymbols
\gtrless AMSsymbols
\gtrsim AMSsymbols
\gvertneqq AMSsymbols
H¶
\hat
\hbar
\hbox
\hdashline
\heartsuit
\hline
\hom
\hookleftarrow
\hookrightarrow
\hphantom
\href [HTML]
\hskip
\hslash AMSsymbols
\hspace
\Huge
\huge
\idotsint AMSmath
I¶
\iff
\iiiint AMSmath
\iiint
\iint
\Im
\imath
\impliedby AMSsymbols
\implies AMSsymbols
\in
\inf
\infty
\injlim AMSmath
\int
\intercal AMSsymbols
\intop
\iota
\it
J¶
\jmath
\Join AMSsymbols
K¶
\kappa
\ker
\kern
L¶
\label [AMSmath]
\Lambda
\lambda
\land
\langle
\LARGE
\Large
\large
\LaTeX
\lbrace
\lbrack
\lceil
\ldotp
\ldots
\le
\leadsto AMSsymbols
\left
\Leftarrow
\leftarrow
\leftarrowtail AMSsymbols
\leftharpoondown
\leftharpoonup
\leftleftarrows AMSsymbols
\Leftrightarrow
\leftrightarrow
\leftrightarrows AMSsymbols
\leftrightharpoons AMSsymbols
\leftrightsquigarrow AMSsymbols
\leftroot
\leftthreetimes AMSsymbols
\leq
\leqalignno
\leqq AMSsymbols
\leqslant AMSsymbols
\lessapprox AMSsymbols
\lessdot AMSsymbols
\lesseqgtr AMSsymbols
\lesseqqgtr AMSsymbols
\lessgtr AMSsymbols
\lesssim AMSsymbols
\let [newcommand]
\lfloor
\lg
\lgroup
\lhd AMSsymbols
\lim
\liminf
\limits
\limsup
\ll
\llap
\llcorner AMSsymbols
\Lleftarrow AMSsymbols
\lll AMSsymbols
\llless AMSsymbols
\lmoustache
\ln
\lnapprox AMSsymbols
\lneq AMSsymbols
\lneqq AMSsymbols
\lnot
\lnsim AMSsymbols
\log
\Longleftarrow
\longleftarrow
\Longleftrightarrow
\longleftrightarrow
\longmapsto
\Longrightarrow
\longrightarrow
\looparrowleft AMSsymbols
\looparrowright AMSsymbols
\lor
\lower
\lozenge AMSsymbols
\lrcorner AMSsymbols
\Lsh AMSsymbols
\lt
\lt
\ltimes AMSsymbols
\lVert AMSmath
\lvert AMSmath
\lvertneqq AMSsymbols
M¶
\maltese AMSsymbols
\mapsto
\mathbb
\mathbf
\mathbin
\mathcal
\mathchoice [mathchoice]
\mathclose
\mathfrak
\mathinner
\mathit
\mathop
\mathopen
\mathord
\mathpunct
\mathrel
\mathring AMSmath
\mathrm
\mathscr
\mathsf
\mathstrut
\mathtip action nonstandard
\mathtt
\matrix
\max
\mbox
\measuredangle AMSsymbols
\mho AMSsymbols
\mid
\middle
\min
\mit
\mkern
\mmlToken nonstandard
\mod
\models
\moveleft
\moveright
\mp
\mskip
\mspace
\mu
\multimap AMSsymbols
N¶
\nabla
\natural
\ncong AMSsymbols
\ne
\nearrow
\neg
\negmedspace AMSmath
\negthickspace AMSmath
\negthinspace
\neq
\newcommand [newcommand]
\newenvironment [newcommand]
\Newextarrow extpfeil
\newline
\nexists AMSsymbols
\ngeq AMSsymbols
\ngeqq AMSsymbols
\ngeqslant AMSsymbols
\ngtr AMSsymbols
\ni
\nLeftarrow AMSsymbols
\nleftarrow AMSsymbols
\nLeftrightarrow AMSsymbols
\nleftrightarrow AMSsymbols
\nleq AMSsymbols
\nleqq AMSsymbols
\nleqslant AMSsymbols
\nless AMSsymbols
\nmid AMSsymbols
\nobreakspace AMSmath
\nolimits
\normalsize
\not
\notag [AMSmath]
\notin
\nparallel AMSsymbols
\nprec AMSsymbols
\npreceq AMSsymbols
\nRightarrow AMSsymbols
\nrightarrow AMSsymbols
\nshortmid AMSsymbols
\nshortparallel AMSsymbols
\nsim AMSsymbols
\nsubseteq AMSsymbols
\nsubseteqq AMSsymbols
\nsucc AMSsymbols
\nsucceq AMSsymbols
\nsupseteq AMSsymbols
\nsupseteqq AMSsymbols
\ntriangleleft AMSsymbols
\ntrianglelefteq AMSsymbols
\ntriangleright AMSsymbols
\ntrianglerighteq AMSsymbols
\nu
\nVDash AMSsymbols
\nVdash AMSsymbols
\nvDash AMSsymbols
\nvdash AMSsymbols
\nwarrow
O¶
\odot
\oint
\oldstyle
\Omega
\omega
\omicron
\ominus
\operatorname AMSmath
\oplus
\oslash
\otimes
\over
\overbrace
\overleftarrow
\overleftrightarrow
\overline
\overrightarrow
\overset
\overwithdelims
\owns
P¶
\parallel
\partial
\perp
\phantom
\Phi
\phi
\Pi
\pi
\pitchfork AMSsymbols
\pm
\pmatrix
\pmb
\pmod
\pod
\Pr
\prec
\precapprox AMSsymbols
\preccurlyeq AMSsymbols
\preceq
\precnapprox AMSsymbols
\precneqq AMSsymbols
\precnsim AMSsymbols
\precsim AMSsymbols
\prime
\prod
\projlim AMSmath
\propto
\Psi
\psi
Q¶
\qquad
\quad
R¶
\raise
\rangle
\rbrace
\rbrack
\rceil
\Re
\ref [AMSmath]
\renewcommand [newcommand]
\renewenvironment [newcommand]
\require nonstandard
\restriction AMSsymbols
\rfloor
\rgroup
\rhd AMSsymbols
\rho
\right
\Rightarrow
\rightarrow
\rightarrowtail AMSsymbols
\rightharpoondown
\rightharpoonup
\rightleftarrows AMSsymbols
\rightleftharpoons
\rightleftharpoons AMSsymbols
\rightrightarrows AMSsymbols
\rightsquigarrow AMSsymbols
\rightthreetimes AMSsymbols
\risingdotseq AMSsymbols
\rlap
\rm
\rmoustache
\root
\Rrightarrow AMSsymbols
\Rsh AMSsymbols
\rtimes AMSsymbols
\Rule nonstandard
\rVert AMSmath
\rvert AMSmath
S¶
\S
\scr
\scriptscriptstyle
\scriptsize
\scriptstyle
\searrow
\sec
\setminus
\sf
\sharp
\shortmid AMSsymbols
\shortparallel AMSsymbols
\shoveleft AMSmath
\shoveright AMSmath
\sideset AMSmath
\Sigma
\sigma
\sim
\simeq
\sin
\sinh
\skew
\small
\smallfrown AMSsymbols
\smallint
\smallsetminus AMSsymbols
\smallsmile AMSsymbols
\smash
\smile
\Space
\space
\spadesuit
\sphericalangle AMSsymbols
\sqcap
\sqcup
\sqrt
\sqsubset AMSsymbols
\sqsubseteq
\sqsupset AMSsymbols
\sqsupseteq
\square AMSsymbols
\stackrel
\star
\strut
\style [HTML] nonstanard
\subset
\Subset AMSsymbols
\subseteq
\subseteqq AMSsymbols
\subsetneq AMSsymbols
\subsetneqq AMSsymbols
\substack AMSmath
\succ
\succapprox AMSsymbols
\succcurlyeq AMSsymbols
\succeq
\succnapprox AMSsymbols
\succneqq AMSsymbols
\succnsim AMSsymbols
\succsim AMSsymbols
\sum
\sup
\supset
\Supset AMSsymbols
\supseteq
\supseteqq AMSsymbols
\supsetneq AMSsymbols
\supsetneqq AMSsymbols
\surd
\swarrow
T¶
\tag [AMSmath]
\tan
\tanh
\tau
\tbinom AMSmath
\TeX
\text
\textbf
\textit
\textrm
\textsf
\textstyle
\texttt
\texttip action nonstandard
\tfrac AMSmath
\therefore AMSsymbols
\Theta
\theta
\thickapprox AMSsymbols
\thicksim AMSsymbols
\thinspace
\tilde
\times
\tiny
\Tiny nonstandard
\to
\toggle action nonstandard
\top
\triangle
\triangledown AMSsymbols
\triangleleft
\trianglelefteq AMSsymbols
\triangleq AMSsymbols
\triangleright
\trianglerighteq AMSsymbols
\tt
\twoheadleftarrow AMSsymbols
\twoheadrightarrow AMSsymbols
U¶
\ulcorner AMSsymbols
\underbrace
\underleftarrow
\underleftrightarrow
\underline
\underrightarrow
\underset
\unicode [unicode] nonstandard
\unlhd AMSsymbols
\unrhd AMSsymbols
\Uparrow
\uparrow
\Updownarrow
\updownarrow
\upharpoonleft AMSsymbols
\upharpoonright AMSsymbols
\uplus
\uproot
\Upsilon
\upsilon
\upuparrows AMSsymbols
\urcorner AMSsymbols
V¶
\varDelta AMSsymbols
\varepsilon
\varGamma AMSsymbols
\varinjlim AMSmath
\varkappa AMSsymbols
\varLambda AMSsymbols
\varliminf AMSmath
\varlimsup AMSmath
\varnothing AMSsymbols
\varOmega AMSsymbols
\varphi
\varPhi AMSsymbols
\varpi
\varPi AMSsymbols
\varprojlim AMSmath
\varpropto AMSsymbols
\varPsi AMSsymbols
\varrho
\varsigma
\varSigma AMSsymbols
\varsubsetneq AMSsymbols
\varsubsetneqq AMSsymbols
\varsupsetneq AMSsymbols
\varsupsetneqq AMSsymbols
\vartheta
\varTheta AMSsymbols
\vartriangle AMSsymbols
\vartriangleleft AMSsymbols
\vartriangleright AMSsymbols
\varUpsilon AMSsymbols
\varXi AMSsymbols
\vcenter
\vdash
\Vdash AMSsymbols
\vDash AMSsymbols
\vdots
\vec
\vee
\veebar AMSsymbols
\verb [verb]
\Vert
\vert
\vphantom
\Vvdash AMSsymbols
W¶
\wedge
\widehat
\widetilde
\wp
\wr
X¶
\Xi
\xi
\xcancel cancel
\xleftarrow AMSmath
\xlongequal extpfeil
\xmapsto extpfeil
\xrightarrow AMSmath
\xtofrom extpfeil
\xtwoheadleftarrow extpfeil
\xtwoheadrightarrow extpfeil
Y¶
\yen AMSsymbols
Z¶
\zeta
Environments¶
LaTeX environments of the form \begin{XXX} ... \end{XXX}
are
provided where XXX
is one of the following:
align [AMSmath]
align* [AMSmath]
alignat [AMSmath]
alignat* [AMSmath]
aligned [AMSmath]
alignedat [AMSmath]
array
Bmatrix
bmatrix
cases
CD AMSmath
eqnarray
eqnarray*
equation
equation*
gather [AMSmath]
gather* [AMSmath]
gathered [AMSmath]
matrix
multline [AMSmath]
multline* [AMSmath]
pmatrix
smallmatrix AMSmath
split [AMSmath]
subarray AMSmath
Vmatrix
vmatrix